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قديم 25-11-1429 هـ, 03:23 صباحاً   #1
عاشقة البحر والبر

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تاريخ التسجيل: 29-06-1429 هـ
المشاركات: 791


محادثه ل 3 اشخاص

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

اهلين اخواتي بنات حواء

عندي محادثه مهمه وعليها 10 درجات وراح تكون بين 3 اشخاص

ابغى فكرة المحادثه ( الموضوع) يكون فيه نوع من المرح

انا في انتظار افكاركم ...

واذا عندكم محادثه ممكن تساعدني وانا اسوي عليها التعديلات اكون شاكره لكم

وجزاكم الله الف خير

ويوفقكم دنيا واخره



عاشقة البحر والبر غير متواجد حالياً رد مع اقتباس إرسال الموضوع إلى الفيس بوك إرسال الموضوع إلى تويتر




26-11-1429 هـ, 04:06 مساءً
#3


تبين محادثه عن شنو ؟ وانا بسويلج



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26-11-1429 هـ, 04:59 مساءً
#4
محادثه بسيطه:
(a) لو سمحت هل تستطيع ان تساعدني رجاء.
(b)نعم(تفضل.
(a)اين اجد اقرب محل للكتب
(b)174 شارع البنك مقابل مركز الشرطه .
(a)شكرا لك.
(a) Excuse me , can you help me , please?
(b) yes.
(a) where is the nearest book shop?
(b) 174 bank street opposite the police station.
(a) thank you.

محادثه اخرى:
(a)لو سمحت , هل تستطيع مساعدتي . رجاء.
(b) نعم (تفضل)
(a) اين اقرب بنك
(b) اقرب بنك باركليز
(a)هل هو بعيد عن هنا
(b) لا , اذهب على طول هذا الطريق وعندئذ انعطف يسارا
البنك في نهايه الشارع.
(a)ما هو وقت فتح وقفل البنك.
(b) يفتح من التاسعه والنصف الى الثالثه والنصف .
(a)شكرا لك
(b)على الرحب والسعه.
(a) Excuse me , can you help me , please?
(b) yes
(a) where is the nearest bank?
(b) the nearest bank is Barclays bank.
(a) is it far from here?
(b) no , go straight a long this road then turn left the bank
With be at the end road.
(a) what time does the bank open/close?
(b) open from half past nine to half past three.
(a) thank you.
(b) welcome.

محادثه:
فاطمه: مرحبا
اسماء:مرحبا , من انت؟
فاطمه: فاطمه.
اسماء: ماذا تفعلين الليله ؟ سوف ادعوك لتذهبي معي للسوق
سوف اشتري بعض الهدايا.
فاطمه: لا استطيع الليله . ماذا ستفعلين؟
اسماء: ما رايك بليله غدا؟
فاطمه: لا استطيع , لنذهب الاسبوع القادم, سوف اذهب إذا لمنزل عمتي.
اسماء: ما رأيك بالاحد القادم؟
فاطمه: حسنا .
فاطمه: حسنا, سوف اراك في منزلك.
اسماء: حسنا, الى اللقاء.
فاطمه: الى اللقاء.
Fatme: Hello
Asma: Hello , who are you?
Fatma: fatma
Asma: what are you doing to night? I invite you to go
With me in a big shop I want buy some presents.
Fatma: I can't tonight , what are you doing to do?
Asma: how about tomorrow night?
Fatma: I can't , lets go next week , I'm going tomorrow
To my aunt house.
Asma: how about next Sunday?
Fatma: yes , all rights.
Asma: ok , I will see you in you home .
Fatma: well ,goodbye.
Asma: goodbye.

السيد علي : مرحبا السيد بدر
السيد بدر : مرحبا السيد علي
السيد علي: من هذه السيده؟
السيد بدر: هي زوجتي
السيد علي: صباح الخير سيده منى
السيده منى: صباح الخير السيد علي
السيدعلي : من هذا الرجل؟
السيدبدر :انه اخي .
السيد علي: ماذا يعمل؟
السيد بدر: انه دكتور
السيد علي: هل هذا ابنك؟
السيد بدر: نعم, هو,وتلك ابنتي.
السيد علي: ما هي اسمائهم؟
السيد بدر: هي اسمها سوزان وهو اسمه جون.
السيد علي: ماذا يعملون؟
السيد بدر: هي طالبه , وهو مهندس.
السيد علي: هل تلك والدك ووالدتك؟
السيد بدر: لا , ليس هم , تلك جدي وجدتي.
السيد علي : الى اللقاء السيد بدر
السيد بدر : الى اللقاء السيد علي.
Mr ali: Hello mr bader
Mr bader: Hello mr ali
Mr ali: who is this woman?
Mr bader: she is my wife.
Mr ali: good morning , mrs mona
Mrs mona: good morning ,mr ali
Mr ali: who is this man?
Mr bader: he is my brother
Mr ali: what is he?
Mr bader: he is a doctor
Mr ali: is this your son?
Mr bader: yes, he is , and that is my daughter
Mr ali: what are their names?
Mr bader: her name is susan and his name is john
Mr ali:what are they?
Mr bader: she is a student and he is an engineer
Mr ali: are those your father and mother?
Mr bader: no, they aren't . this is my grand father
And that's my grand mother
Mr ali: good-bye mr bader
Mr bader: good – bye mr ali.

السيد احمد: صباح الخير السيد بلال كيف حالك؟
السيد بلال: صباح الخير السيد احمد انا بخير وانت
السيد احمد: انا احسن جدا , كيف حال والدك؟
السيد بلال: انه مريض في السرير . انه مريض اليوم
السيد احمد: انا اسف جدا . اين بيتك؟
السيد بلال: بيتي في هذا البلد.
السيد احمد: الوقت متأخر وداعا.
Mr ahmed: good morning mr bilal . how are you?
Mr bilal: good morning mr ahmed . I'm fine .and you?
Mr ahmed: I am very well. How is your father?
Mr bilal: he's sick in bed .he is sick today.
Mr ahmed: I am very sorry. Where is you house?
Mr bilal: my house is in the country.
Mr ahmed: the time is late .good – bye.

من انت؟
انا بيتر سميث
ماذا تعمل؟
انا طالب
ما اسمك؟
اسمي بيتر سميث
اين توجد مدرستك؟
مدرستي بالقرب من منزلي
اين كتابك؟
كتابي على يسار يدي
اين الطائرة؟
الطائره في السماء
اين السيده والطفل؟
السيده والطفل يجلسون على الكرسي
ما هو اسم صديقك؟
اسم صديقي جون تايلور
Who are you?
I am peter smith
What are you?
I am student
What's your name?
My name is peter smith
Where is your school?
My school is near my house
Where is your book?
My book is in my left hand
Where is the airplane?
The airplane is in the sky
Where are the woman and the baby?
The woman and the baby are sitting on the chair
What is the name of your friend?
The name of my friend is john tailor.

لم تكن موجود بالامس . اين كنت؟
- كنت بالعمل, كنت مشغول .
- هل انت مشغول اليوم؟
- لا
- لماذا؟
- اليوم عطله.
- ما هي خططك؟
- حفله.
- هل انت مستعد؟
- نعم , وانت؟
- لا
- هل انت مشغول؟
نعم
- ما هو اليوم؟
- انه الاحد.
- الاحد عطله.
- والجمعه عطله ايضا
- الاحد هي عطله المدن المسيحيه
- والجمعه هي عطله المدن المسلمه.
- كل الايام هي عطله عندما تريد ان تكون سعيد .
- كل يوم هو عطله عندما تكون غير مشغول.
-you weren't here yesterday. Where were you?
- I was at ****. I was busy.
-are you busy today?
- no, I'm not.
- why?
- today is a holiday.
- what's you plan?
- a party.
- are you ready?
-yes , I am . are you?
- no I'm not.
- are you busy?
- yes , I am.
- what day is today?
- it is Sunday.
-Sunday is a holiday.
- Friday is a holiday , too.
- Sunday is a holiday in Christian countries.
- and Friday is a holiday in muslim countries.
- eveyday is a holiday when you are happy.
- everyday is a holiday when you are not busy.


توقيع



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كلام الحب غير متواجد حالياً  



27-11-1429 هـ, 12:54 صباحاً
#5
الله يعطيك العافيه ام نوح على الرد ابغى عن اي شئ

لكن اهم شئ تكون بين 3 اشخاص وتكون فيها نوع من المرح

مثلا انا فكرت في انه تكون وحده تكون هي الي تجري المقابله وتسوي مع ضيوفها (الثنتين) ويكون كأنهم مثلا اشخاص مشهورين

تسأل مثلا عن حياتهم ونظامهم اليومي وموقف طريف صار لهم >>>>> عشان يكون فيها مثل ماطلبت الاستاذه فيه نوع من الفرح

واذا عندك افكار ثانيه واحلى اعطيني رأيك لانه مو محدد الموضوع

وتسلمين على الرد والله يوفقك دنيا واخره

ويسر لك امورك


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عاشقة البحر والبر غير متواجد حالياً  



27-11-1429 هـ, 12:55 صباحاً
#6
مشكوره كلام الحب


وتسلمين على الرد والله يوفقك دنيا واخره

ويسر لك امورك


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عاشقة البحر والبر غير متواجد حالياً  



27-11-1429 هـ, 08:26 صباحاً
#7


فالج طيب .. يومين و يجهز ****لله ^_^


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ام نـــــوح غير متواجد حالياً  



27-11-1429 هـ, 06:34 مساءً
#8
تسلمين ياام نوح على مساعدتك

والله يسر لك امورك ويفرج همومك مثل مافرجتي علي

وابشري باحلى دعوه لك بالتوفيق في الدارين

وجزاك الله خير مثل ماتحبين تساعدين غيرك


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عاشقة البحر والبر غير متواجد حالياً  



28-11-1429 هـ, 09:59 صباحاً
#9
هلا .. سويت لج محادثه حواريه بين شخصين .. يسأله ليش يشتغل هذه الشغله و شلي عايبه فيها و جذي انا حسيتها حلوة يعني في كلام مؤثر .. المس مالتكم بتتأثر .. لول .. و الثانيه يبتها لج من النت حوار بين 3 اشخاص عن اشياء علميه هما مسويين ها .. انا سويتها لج فالورد بس ما عرف كيف انزله .. فبسويلج Copy paste و انتي بدورج خذي اللي تبينه و خللي فالورد مثل ما اهو لأني عدلت كل شى فيه يعني جاهز .. اوكي ..

بس انتي اي صف ؟! لأن الموضوع الثاني يصلح حق اللي فالجامعه و الا الثانويه !!

عالعموم ****لله يعيبج ^_^ تفضلي ..


****************************** ****************************** *************************





Q: What made you decide to get a job as a janitor?

Aaron Bosnian: I had left my job as a shipping clerk and was sick of getting up early in the morning, so I opened the newspaper to "J" and started looking. When I applied, they told me "If you can speak English, lift five pounds, and pass a drug test, you're hired."

Q: How long have you been doing this?

Bosnian: About five years.

Q: Tell me about your first assignment.

Bosnian: They sent me to a metal****ing shop. The sinks were covered in grease and the vacuum had a big magnet on the front to pick the metal shavings off the floor.
The first vacuum I ****ed with, I called it Maud. She was a good vacuum. You know, life is like vacuuming — you're going along and everything is fine, when suddenly it shuts off and you realize you've run out of cord.

Q: So what did you do after the metal****ing shop?

Bosnian: I ****ed at this school for naturopathic medicine. It's this old brick building in southwest Portland. The original building was built in 1905, and they've made a bunch of additions to it since then.

Q: Did you tell me once that you thought it was haunted?

Bosnian: Well, there was a time when it was windy outside, and I swore it sounded like children screaming in the distance.

Q: Are you making this up?

Bosnian: No, A lot of weird things happen to you at two a.m.

Q: So what else about that place was creepy?

Bosnian: Well, I would be cleaning the hallway and the elevator would suddenly come open, even though there was no one inside. I would just turn up my Walkman. I usually listened to books on tape to pass the time. I listened to "War and Peace" in about a month. It was fifty cassette tapes.

Q: So did you just clean the classrooms and bathrooms at the school?

Bosnian: No, the worst part was cleaning the dissection lab. I would try to wait until the sun came up to clean that room. It was not something you wanted to do in the dark.

At first, there was a pile of bodies on the floor. They were wrapped in plastic and they were there for about a month. This was spring semester, and it was warm.

Q: Did it smell?

Bosnian: It smelled like chemicals, but the bodies were wrapped pretty tight.

Q: So did they ever get them off the floor to start dissecting them?

Bosnian: They ordered steel tables that took about six weeks to come in. Then, when the tables got there, they put the bodies on them. But when they moved the bodies, a big sticky mark was on the floor. I had to mop it, hard. I would mop for ten minutes, let it dry, and it would still be sticky. You couldn't see it, it was just sticky. It wasn't blood or fluid, just some kind of chemicals. It took two weeks to get it all off.

Q: What did the tables look like?

Bosnian: They were stainless steel and they collected runoff on the side. There were hoses that led to pickle buckets underneath.

Q: Pickle buckets?

Bosnian: You know, these plastic buckets for collecting the fluids. I used to **** in a hotdog restaurant where we would get five-gallon plastic barrels of pickles. You know, pickle buckets.

Q: Were the bodies just lying on the tables then, or were they covered up?

Bosnian: They were under a stainless-steel cover that sort of folded back to the sides. One night I came in early and there was a guy there, listening to the classic rock station and reaching into the abdomen and pulling stuff out of one of them.

Q: Did you ever peek at the bodies when no one was around?

Bosnian: Sure, of course. You get curious.

Q: And what did they look like?

Bosnian: They were usually whole people with their guts sort of showing. There was one that had no head — they had cut it off, to study the brain I guess. One had no arms. You know how dissection goes. They peel back the skin, peel away the tendons, and peel maybe the chest back so the ribs are sticking out.

Q: Were there any other rooms at the school that you didn't like cleaning?

Bosnian: Yeah, there was one room where they had minor surgery classes. I think the professor would go to Safeway and buy about twenty-pounds of pigs' feet for the students to practice stitching on. Then, when they were done, they would just throw the pigs' feet in the trash. I ****ed Sunday through Thursday and the class was on Fridays. The room had big windows facing west, and it got a lot of sun and no ventilation. There weren't any maggots or fleas or anything, but it didn't smell the greatest. That was the first room I would clean when I got in on Sunday.

Q: When did you stop ****ing at the college?

Bosnian: When the contract expired, and the college was trying to make budget cuts.

Q: Were you disappointed?

Bosnian: Yeah, in some ways. I could imagine ****ing there for twenty years. But now I get to drive the van and deliver toilet paper. So it could be worse.

Q: Do you ever consider leaving this profession?

Bosnian: I can sleep all day and get up when I want. Sure, the janitor job isn't the greatest job in the world, but it's quiet, you don't have to deal with people, it's less hectic than my previous job, and it's better than ****ing in fast food.




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ام نـــــوح غير متواجد حالياً  



28-11-1429 هـ, 10:07 صباحاً
#10
وهذه المحادثه الثانيه " العلميه " .. موفقه يا رب






This is an imaginary conversation between three imaginary people. Jill is the head of a technical communication consulting company and Jack is a senior writer. They have been contracted to revise and update the Center for Advanced Scientific Research’s Web page. They are meeting with a scientist-administrator at the site, Boa Lu. The two consultants must decide what to do next, and what recommendations to make to Boa. You might want to review the Lindeman and Ornatowski articles we read for this week after reading this.
I wrote this dialogue because I wanted a way to unify this week’s theoretical readings on rhetoric with real problems in technical communicating, and to help you all see a systematic way of analyzing your technical communication problems for your projects. So this writing was born out a perceived need, an “exigency.” Necessity is the mother of invention.
For class on Monday (onsite class) and Wednesday (online distance class) we will discuss this. Then I will ask you in class to do a brief rhetorical analysis of Ken Bakes’ Web page, where you will develop a set of questions to ask me as you prepare to make recommendations for how to improve it.

Ken Bake


Boa:
Welcome to the Center for Advanced Scientific Research. Before we get started, I would like you to tell me why we should hire a technical communication company to do our Web page. Maybe we should just get one of the scientists to do it, since the Center is a scientific research center.


Jill:
Well, developing a Web page is an act of communication, which involves using the tools of rhetoric that technical communicators are trained in. These skills have been around since the ancient Greeks, so they have been proven to ****. The Greeks first used rhetoric to come to some social agreement about problems that did not have clear-cut answers. Like what to present in your Web page. The science may seem exact, but when you get down to what parts of that science to display and how to do it, you are getting down to rhetorical challenges. Aristotle referred to this as using “artistic” proofs, because the solutions are artful, but not certain.


Jack:
Right, for example, you could have three frames in the Center’s Home page, one for an introduction, one for links to various topics within the Center, and one for coming events. Or you could do it without frames and just use hypertext links. There is no solution that is certainly correct, but some are better than others. Rhetoric helps to find those best choices


Boa:
Wait a minute, here. We are talking about scientific writing on the Web. Rhetoric to me still sounds like political double talk.


Jill:
That’s a narrow stereotype about rhetoric. Rhetoric is difficult to define, and definitions have evolved over the millennia, but we know that it involves at its essence finding the best things to say and the best way to say them in each situation. So, your Web page project calls for rhetoric because we are trying to find the best things to say about the Center and the best way to say them.


Jack:
But some rhetorical theorists would agree with you, Boa that rhetoric has a bad connotation. For example, rhetorical theorist Jim Kinray preferred to use the term “discourse” for all types of human communication. Most communication involves the exchange of information, or a “signal,” about reality between a speaker or writer and an audience. This is an example of “pragmatics.” That’s because it involves real communication challenges. So in our case, the Center would be sending a signal through its Web page to an audience. That Web page is the media by which the signal is sent, but we know that signals can be sent a lot of ways—voice, television, books, you name it.


Jill:
And Kinray would say that each message has a “mode,” which for him meant that each message had attributes by which it could be classified. Was it essentially a story, an evaluation of some aspect of reality, a description of reality, or classification of parts of reality? We don’t have to worry about this too much, except to note that science writing has elements of all these modes. Most writing does to some extent. I mean, a manual that shows people how to use a lawnmower does have a kind of story in that the reader is seen to be cutting the lawn. At the same time, the manual classifies the different parts of the mower. You get the idea.


Boa:
This is riveting stuff, but I still wonder what it all has to do with us. I mean, how will it help us serve our readers?


Jill:
Well, you have asked the key question. “How will it help us serve our readers” is the key question. Remember that rhetoric, or discourse if you prefer, involves a relationship between a message sender, a receiver, and some aspect of reality that is represented by a signal. So assuming you know who you are, as Center scientists, and that you more or less know your message, your big challenge is to determine who will be receiving it. Who is the audience? That is usually the most difficult question to answer.


Jack:
Unless you happen to be locked in the Space Shuttle with one person. Then you know who your audience is.


Jill:
Very funny, Jack, but you are right in a sense. The challenge of audience is when you can’t see the members. I mean, you guys at the Center might have scientists reading this who want to come to the Center, but you may also have some rich woman with a lot of money who wants to donate it. Both would be important people to reach.



Jack.
And that’s the other big question to ask. Even if you know who your audience is, you still have to ask why you are trying to send them a message. That is, what is your purpose in developing the Web page?


Boa:
Well, I see an audience or mostly researchers and peer scientists. And maybe a few benefactors like you mentioned. But what’s the big deal about purpose? I mean the purpose is to present information that they may want to read. Right?



Jill:
Ah, but it’s not so simple. Are you trying to educate them purely for the sake of helping them to know more about your science? Do you want to entertain them with dazzling new discoveries? Or are you trying to get them to do something—to come to the Center to study for example, or to donate money? It was Cicero who first pointed out that rhetoric could be used to teach, to delight, or to move people to action. Rhetorical theory recognizes that the audience always has choices and the text or picture or speech, or whatever medium, will influence those choices. Rhetoric is inherently persuasive.


Boa:
Wait a minute. Who said anything about persuading? We need to maintain our status as a serious scientific institution, not an advertising agency. Besides, you guys are supposed to be technical communicators. There is nothing persuasive about technical communication. It’s all about the world as it has been proven to be by scientists, or modified by engineers. So what we do or you do is not uncertain, not in the way you were saying that Aristotle’s subject matter was.


Jack:
Let’s back up a minute. Remember we said that all communication must have a purpose. What is the purpose of presenting the findings of Center for Advanced Scientific Research?


Boa:
It’s the same as with any science. We do tests that can be verified and repeated to determine how reality is. Of course, some of our theories are still unfinished and full of conjecture. But it is conjecture based upon observations of reality. I mean, we are not writing poetry.


Jill:
Absolutely right, Boa. You are not writing poetry. And even when your theories may be new and unproven, they are still looking at some aspect of reality and trying to make sense of it. Like Sir Isaac Newton looked at an apple and asked why it fell from the tree? He wasn’t thinking about what he felt about the apple. So he wasn’t writing poetry. And if a technical writer produces a manual about a lawnmower, he or she is looking at a lawnmower as a source of deep emotion.


Jack:
Kinray said that pragmatic discourse can have one of four purposes, or what he called “aims.” If you were writing a poem about an apple, you would be writing “expressive” discourse. If you were writing a story about the apple, you would be writing “literary” discourse. And if you were trying to get someone to buy the apple, you would be writing “persuasive” discourse. But if you are trying to describe the chemical ****** of the apple or argue logically about how gravity makes ripe apples fall from the tree, you would be writing “referential”
discourse.


Jill:
Yes, referential discourse focuses on the relationship between the object of reality and the signal used to explain it. Technical communication is referential discourse, but it is discourse all the same. It is a kind of rhetoric.


Boa:
Well, as you mentioned, even though we are presenting science on our Web page, we are still trying to persuade people to come here. I guess I can accept that. And, for that matter, we are telling a story in a way about the Center. So we have various “aims,” I suppose.


Jill:
Absolutely. Even the writer of a lawnmower manual is trying to persuade the reader that the machine has been made carefully. The logical sequence of instructions conveys a message that the user is in safe hands. It’s not merely a set of instructions. It offers a kind of comfort.


Jack:
Good point, Jill. As we know, many people don’t even bother to read the instructions. They might be able to figure the lawnmower out pretty easily on their own. But if it came without instructions, the implied message would be that something was not quite finished, that maybe it wasn’t safe or something.


Boa:
Okay, but let’s look at our Web page. I think we can say that the main audience is either potential researchers or potential donors. And the purpose is to show what we do so those people can decide if they have something to offer or to gain from being involved with us.


Jill:
Well stated, Boa. You have articulated your purpose that recognizes a persuasive goal, but one that is highly ethical. You all are doing important research and you want to include people who can join your community for everyone’s benefit. That approaches Kenneth Burke’s modern view of rhetoric as a means of using symbols to induce cooperation and cohesion among people. Cooperation is how society progresses.


Boa:
Oh, so the lawnmower manual is helping society to cooperate in keeping nice lawns so that rats and weeds don’t take over the world, and so people can practice golf putting.


Jack:
(Laughs) OK, so maybe we are going overboard with theory, here. Let’s look at your Web page, Boa. What do you think needs to be done?


Boa:
We have the four paragraphs under the picture that introduce the Center. Some of the scientists wondered if we shouldn’t say a little more about the science there. But some others said anyone who would be interested would already know what we do. So I’m not sure. Either way, we want to look at the wording of that introduction; it seems a bit, well, boring in a way. And then we have the links to “Areas of Specialty.” One of the scientists said that by having the business link first implied that we were a commercial venture, not a research center. So we need to look at how we use those links.


Jill:
Boa, you just hit on three of the five parts of classical rhetoric. Your challenge of trying to decide what to say in the introductory paragraph is an issue of rhetorical “invention.” It’s kind of like brainstorming, where you consider all the things you could say and how you could say them and then decide what to say. And you also have to think of ways to support your message. For example, you can make an argument that something causes something else to happen, or that some scientific phenomenon that looks like X really is an example of Y. These are “commonplaces,” which are ways of discovering arguments.



Jack:
Yes. I notice you folks use a lot of metaphors in your science writing. Metaphor in some ways is a figure of speech; part of the process of invention is choosing those figures of speech that best help to develop your message.



Boa:
What to write—that’s tough. We could try to summarize the types of science we do or we could describe all the different types, everything from autocatalytic cell structures to complex insect communities. That could take up a lot of space.



Jack:
Yeah, invention is never easy. And with Web pages you have to balance the rhetorical needs with the technical constraints. If you cram a lot of information in to a page, especially a lot of graphics, the page can take a long time for the audience to load. So not all your challenges are rhetorical, of course.


Boa:
Well, speaking of technical challenges isn’t there software that could specialize the Web page for each reader. So if someone from a biology department at a university signed on, the page would give a message asking if they wanted information about our biological research. I think I have heard of this. That way we wouldn’t overload a biologist with information about physics if he weren’t interested.


Jack:
Yeah, Java Script allows for customized messaging. I don’t know if we could get it that specific, yet, but we will be able to eventually. The Web is moving toward more and more user profiling. The way that Amazon.com knows what types of books you like to read and suggests similar ones, for example. But that brings me to another concept from classical rhetoric that you might want to consider. Rhetorical proofs come in three forms, and one of those is known as ethos. The concept of ethos means that something could be persuasive simply because the speaker is known to have a good reputation or a good character. Or it might not be persuasive if the speaker is known to have a bad character. So you would have to ask yourself what effect a flashy message aimed at each user would have on the reputation or ethos of the Center.


Jill:
Yeah, if an introverted biologist signs on from Johns Hopkins University and gets a message that says “Greetings Johns Hopkins scholar,” she might think that’s a little intrusive—that maybe the Center is Big Brother or something. That could hurt your ethos. The issue of profiling users is also a matter of ethics. How much are we entitled to know about our audience? Of course, as you can see, the word “ethics” is derived from “ethos.”


Boa:
Good point. But what about the order of our links? I guess that will affect our ethos as well?


Jack:
Sure. As you mentioned, having the business link first suggests that a connection to the business world is important. That’s a fine message to send if that’s really an emphasis. Here we are talking about the second of the five parts of rhetoric. After invention comes “arrangement”—deciding how to organize your proofs. The third part you alluded to Boa is “style.” For a Web page that can be how exciting or dull the text seems to be, as you mentioned. But it also has a lot to do with visual display of information. The colors of a page, the fonts, the borders, and the use of photographs—all of that conveys a certain style.


Boa:
We have to be real careful there. We have to appear exciting and innovative, since we are dealing with powerful new theories of the nature of reality. But we don’t want to appear like a bunch of wacky astrologers or hippie scientists, if you know what I mean.


Jill:
Sure. Style is a real balancing act. Scientists and rhetoricians have debated matters of style since the Romans pointed out the distinction between substance (res) and style (verbal). Too much style can overshadow the signal or distort it. But not enough and no one will pay attention to the signal.


Boa:
Scientists try to keep their substance in the forefront. Some get carried away, but most try to be objective in their writing.


Jill:
Your page now probably has a nice writing style. Not too flashy, but somewhat eloquent. The main challenge I see is in the invention stage of that introductory paragraph. What kinds of things to include or what kinds of “proofs” to use, as the Classical rectors might have asked. This recalls the two other proofs of Classical rhetoric: logos and pathos. A proof of logos is one that is based in a logical argument, one that could be deduced by principles of logic. A lot of your writing will be logical in this way, claiming for example that some living creatures behave a certain manner because of certain events in the environment. Pathos is employed when you tell a story that convinces your audience to sympathize with you or your cause. Science writing doesn’t have much obvious pathos, but any time you see a journal article that describes years of research on a project, as a reader you are being induced subtly to feel some sympathy for that researcher. It might make you more inclined to accept her results.


Boa:
Well I don’t see our Web page moving people to tears, if you know what I mean. But some of our research involving the pathology of children’s diseases does make you feel for the kids. But a lot of it has to do mostly with atoms and molecules moving around, forming different substances.



Jill:
You know, it occurs to me that your science has a lot of things moving, a lot of things happening, that I don’t see in the Web page. Molecules change forms, for example. Single-celled organisms self organize to become multi-celled organisms. Seems like this Web page does not exhibit the constant motion that goes on in the world of science. Perhaps we could develop the page so that it seems to be more alive, more active.


Jack:
Yes. People like Jeffrey Vein who write about Web authoring, which is what we are talking about here, see the Web as a structured environment of words that are presented amid graphics and pictures, all of which is brought into being or a kind of behavior by an underlying computer code—HTML and its cousins. The third item on that list is “behavior,” which suggests that the Web is more organic and living than mere text and images. So you could have some kind of an evolving graphic that would display some of the scientific activities as they unfold—maybe have a complex organism form from a few basic cells that interact.


Jill:
Right. Use the Web for what it can do that fixed text cannot. Of course, you have to make sure that the average user can see the animation, or again, you will be damaging your ethos.


Jack:
Did I mention Kenneth Burke…?


Boa:
Oh no, more rhetorical theory. Go ahead.


Jack:
Burke looked at whole social activity of humans engaged with other humans as a kind of rhetorical play or drama. He looked at how people “act” amid a “scene,” at the individual qualities of each person, each “agent,” in the play, what means, or “agency” they used to accomplish their acts, and why they did what they did, their “purpose.” Seems like breaking the Web up into a structure is like saying it is a scene. And saying that it involves the visual presentation of information is like saying that the Web has a kind of agency. And it has a certain behavior in that the code can make things happen. We can have animation, true action on the Web, a true drama that can tell a story in ways that text alone cannot.




Boa:
Well if we can do all that with our Web page, I’ll be quite pleased. Let’s get started.


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